Shoreline or shoreline, the boundary between land and sea retains altering its form and place repeatedly as a result of dynamic environmental situations. The change in shoreline is principally related to waves, tides, winds, periodic storms, sealevel change, the geomorphic processes of abrasion and accretion and human actions. Shoreline additionally depicts the current formations and destructions which have occurred alongside the shore. Waves change the shoreline morphology and kinds the distinctive coastal landforms. The unfastened granular sediments repeatedly reply to the ever-changing waves and currents. The seashore profile is necessary, in that it may be seen as an efficient pure mechanism, which causes waves to interrupt and dissipate their power. When breakwaters are constructed, they upset the pure equilibrium between the sources of seashore sediment and the littoral drift sample. In response, shoreline modifications its configuration in try to succeed in a brand new equilibrium (Ramesh and Ramachandran 2001). Monitoring modifications in shoreline helps to determine the character and processes that brought about these modifications in any particular space, to evaluate the human impression and to plan administration methods. Distant sensing knowledge could possibly be used successfully to observe the modifications alongside the coastal zone together with shoreline with cheap accuracy. Distant sensing knowledge helps and / or replaces the standard survey by its repetitive and fewer cost-effectiveness. Therefore, with a purpose to examine the coastal processes in Tuticorin coastal space, the shoreline change, wave motion, bathymetry and coastal geomorphology have been analyzed utilizing Distant Sensing and GIS instruments.
Tuticorin coast has a significant port and it’s a quickly creating space. The examine space falls within the latitudinal and longitudinal extensions of 8° 40′ – 8° 55′ N and 78° 0′ – 78° 15′ E on the Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India (fig 1). Main Industries reminiscent of Southern Petrochemical Industrial Company, Thermal Energy Plant, Tuticorin Alkali Chemical substances and Heavy Water Plant are additionally current on this space. As a result of accelerated improvement actions the coastal space expertise vital modifications.
Tuticorin was a centre of maritime commerce and pearl fishery for greater than 2000 years. To deal with growing commerce by Tuticorin, the federal government of India sanctioned the development of an all climate port at Tuticorin. On 11-7-1974, the newly constructed Tuticorin port was declared because the tenth main port. On 1-4-1979, the erstwhile Tuticorin minor port and the newly constructed Tuticorin main port have been merged and the Tuticorin Port Belief was constituted below the main port trusts act, 1963.
Geocoded IRS LISS III Could 2002 imagery was used to arrange coastal geomorphology map adopting visible interpretation approach. Within the current examine, the classification system developed by the House Utility Middle, Ahmedabad for the nation extensive coastal geomorphic mapping was adopted for the examine (SAC 1991).
Survey of India toposheets No. L1 & L5 of (1969) (lat: 8° 40 ‘- 8° 55′, lengthy: 78° 0′ – 78° 15’; Scale 1:50,000) have been used as a base map. They was digitized, edited, geometrically projected and reworked by ARC INFO to keep up actual world coordinates. To get rid of the impact of tidal affect in shoreline change examine, low tide satellite tv for pc knowledge have been used. SOI toposheets 1969, Landsat 5 TM Could 1993, IRS P2 LISS II Could 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III Could 2002 satellite tv for pc knowledge have been used to evaluate the modifications in shoreline for 33 years interval from 1969 to 2002. Raster knowledge procured by satellites have been geometrically corrected utilizing the Survey of India toposheet as a base. Greater than 25 floor management factors have been taken and the Root Imply Sq. (RMS) error for geometric correction is 0.002. Band 1 of IRS P2 LISS II 1996, band 5 of LANDSAT 5 TM 1993 and band Three of IRS 1C LISS III 2002 have been used. These totally different bands have been used primarily based on their distinction between land and ocean. In these bands the data content material is extra in land as in comparison with water. The Landsat 5 TM 1993, IRS P2 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III 2002 knowledge have been vectorised by adopting onscreen digitization approach with single pixel zoom stage utilizing ERDAS think about 8.Four software program. The vector layers of the shoreline obtained by on display digitization in ERDAS think about and vectorisation by ArcInfo have been imported as Arc protection for the above 4 knowledge units. Every of the information units had a polygon ID 1 for Land space and a couple of for Ocean. The shoreline obtained from Survey of India toposheet of 1969 and the shoreline demarcated by the satellite tv for pc knowledge of Landsat 5 TM 1993, IRS P2 1996, and IRS 1C 2002 have been stored in several protection in the identical projection and map coordinates. These 4 coverages have been overlaid by Arc data GIS. Shoreline change map of 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 have been generated. The decision differs for various satellite tv for pc knowledge merchandise. For LANDSAT 5 TM, IRS P2 and IRS 1C resolutions have been 30m, 73.5m and 23.5m respectively. Although there may be decision distinction, edge detection approach offers a transparent demarcation of land and water boundary. The shoreline options have been dropped at Arcview GIS for additional querying and evaluation.
Wave sample recognition
Distant Sensing is changing into a significant instrument in figuring out the coastal processes spatially. Infrared band offers the utmost data on ocean parameters, so band Three of IRS P2 1996, band 2 of IRS 1C of 2001 and band 2 of IRS 1C 2002 have been used for the identification of wave patterns. Noise discount approach is utilized to the IRS P2 Could 1996, IRS 1C Could 2001 and IRS 1C Could 2002 knowledge for enhancing the picture. Convolution filtering approach with 3*Three kernel edge detect is utilized to IRS P2 Could 1996, IRS 1C Could 2001 and IRS 1C Could 2002 for enhancing the wave traits for interpretation.
For coastal bathymetry research Naval Hydrographic Organisation (NHO) chart 1999 is interpolated, interpreted and analysed utilizing Arcinfo and Arcview GIS. The NHO chart quantity is 2075, scale is 1:50000 and the density of spot soundings is Four per sq.km. This chart was surveyed in 1975-1976, in transverse mercator projection, up to date in 1999 and the tidal ranges referred to datum of soundings is Lat 8° 48′ and Lengthy 78° 10′ and the heights in meters above datum is MHWS 1.0, MHWN 0.7, MLWN 05, MLWS 03 and MSL 0.6 respectively. TIN interpolation approach is adopted for spatial interpolation and DEM technology. Zero is outlined as datum or the reference to which the depth is measured. Illustration of the seabed on this mannequin is within the type of elevation matrix shaped by overlaying a sq. grid mesh over the floor and recording the elevation worth for every grid cell. The cell values are organized in matrix kind the place the row and column numbers suggest the x-y co-ordinate of the cell respectively. The elevation matrix is produced by interpolation from irregularly spaced bathymetric knowledge factors over a contour map. The three dimensional view and the slope of bathymetry is derived by making use of TIN spatial evaluation mannequin utilizing Arc View 3.2a software program.
Outcomes and Dialogue
Sandy seashores are the product of waves interacting with a sandy seashore on the shoreline. The sandy seashores are extensively developed alongside the whole coast of examine space besides at some locations. Tuticorin is roofed by lengthy and intensive sandy seashore. It tendencies in north-south course. Effectively developed sandy seashore is recognized beneath south harbour breakwater. This seashore is dominated by an admixture of quartz, feldspars and mica minerals. The seashore is discovered as thick white patch at south of south harbour breakwater in satellite tv for pc imagery (fig.2).
A spit is a small level of low tongue or slender bankment, generally consisting of sand or gravel deposited by a long-shore drifting and having one finish hooked up to the mainland and different terminating within the open sea. It’s recognized in white patch in satellite tv for pc imagery (fig.2). Two spit formations have been noticed in south of the city coast. Usually the formation of spit has been attributed to the motion and deposition of supplies by lengthy shore present (Thornbury 1969). Spit signifies seaward progradation (Loveson and Rajamanickam 1987). The spit close to Tuticorin is 0.75 to 2 km lengthy and tongue formed. Tuticorin spit has resulted by lengthy shore currents throughout monsoon and the sediments discharged by Tamiraparani River.
Seaside ridges are reasonably undulating terrain options of marine depositional sort, shaped throughout pliestocene to current age, within the plains of the examine space. They’re low, basically steady seashore or seashore dune supplies (sand, gravel and shingle) heaped up by the motion of wave and currents on the backshore of a seashore past the current restrict of storm waves or the attain of abnormal tides, and occurring as a single or as one among a sequence of roughly parallel deposits (Chockalingam 1993). The seashore ridges have been acknowledged as representing successive still-stand place of sea of an advancing shoreline from satellite tv for pc imagery. Seaside ridges of Tuticorin are extremely reworked.
Mudflat is a flat space containing a fluid to plastic combination of finely derived particles of stable materials primarily silt and clay water. They’re all the time related to silted environments like lagoons, estuaries and different embankments. Mudflats are shaped by the deposition of tremendous inorganic materials and natural particles in particulate kind. Mud flats are extensive expense of deposit of clay, silt, ooze, and so on (Davies 1972). Mudflats are nicely developed on the river mouth of Koramballam Oodai, an estuarine atmosphere. They seem as darkish black tone in satellite tv for pc imagery .
Dune complicated is a crucial geomorphic unit comprising of lively and unfastened sediment heaps with negligible quantity of vegetation. On this zone, the aeolian exercise is reportedly excessive leading to migration with no main change of their shapes. It signifies the age of late Pliestocene to Latest (Loveson 1993). Tuticorin is located in dune complicated .
Teri dune complicated
Teri dune complicated is an undulating terrain having unfastened heaps of purple colour sand and silt mud of aeolian origin. They symbolize Pliestocene to Latest age of formation (Loveson 1993; Loveson et. al. 1990). They appeared as spherical to oval formed mounts with dense vegetation. It’s assumed that the fierce and steady winds of south west monsoon by sweeping up huge clouds of mud from the dry floor of the purple loam, uncovered on the base of the hills will need to have introduced and deposited their load of sediments close to the coast over the plain to kind Teri dune complicated (Ahmad 1972). All dune complexes on this space are trending within the northeast to southeast course. Lately, these Teri dune complexes are being utilized for cultivation additionally. It’s recognized in greenish yellow colour in satellite tv for pc imagery.
Shoreline is among the necessary dynamic coastal options the place the land, air and sea meet. In any open coast, when artifical buildings reminiscent of harbour or breakwaters intrude with the littoral currents shoreline modifications drastically. Chauhan and Nayak (1995) have studied the shoreline modifications utilizing the satellite tv for pc knowledge overlaying low tide interval. In the course of the low tide situation, most land is uncovered and even low water line / land water boundary and excessive water line are distinctly seen. This allows higher mapping of the shoreline. The demarcation and the areal extent of the websites of abrasion and accretion are queried and estimated by Arc View GIS bundle (fig. 3). The whole areas of abrasion in the course of the durations 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 are given in desk 1. It was noticed that in 1969 to 1993 the erosion alongside the shoreline of Tuticorin space was 9 ha. In the course of the interval of 1993 to 1996 it was 14 ha and within the interval 1996 to 2002 it was 18 ha. A lot of the erosion was noticed in sand spit, Hare Island and at city coast (fig. 3). The whole areas of accretion in the course of the durations 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 are given in desk 2. The accretion in the course of the totally different durations have been 138 ha (1969 to 1993),
18 ha (1993 to 1996) and 23 ha (1996 to 2002) (fig. 3). Since accretion was greater than the erosion, the whole shoreline could possibly be thought-about because the shore of progradation. Rajamanickam (1991) noticed the options of emergence and submergence respectively alongside the southern components of Tamilnadu. He additionally recommended upwarping alongside Tuticorin space.
For analyzing the shoreline change within the examine space, particular websites reminiscent of south harbour breakwater, Hare Island, sand spit and concrete coast have been studied for erosion and accretion. City coast is the shoreline of the city space. It’s demarcated and proven within the determine 3. The areal extent of abrasion and accretion noticed within the abovesaid areas are introduced in Desk Three and 4. Each erosion and accretion components have been averted in estuarine atmosphere since demarcation of shoreline isn’t precisely doable in estuarine atmosphere as a result of this space is very dynamic.
In sand spit (fig. 4 & 5), throughout 1969 to 1993 erosion was Four ha and the accretion was 7 ha, throughout 1993 to 1996 erosion was Four ha and accretion was Three ha and through 1996 to 2002 erosion was 5 ha. and accretion was 2 ha (Desk 3 & 4). In sand spit the erosion is seen at wave uncovered aspect and accretion is seen at leeward aspect of the spit. This can be because of the transport of eroded sediments from the wave uncovered aspect to the leeward aspect of the spit.
Tombalo construction formation is seen in between Tuticorin mainland and Hare Island
(fig. 2). This is because of longshore sedimentation from south to north ensuing within the Hare Island and the mainland to hyperlink. It took geological years to hyperlink the mainland and Hare Island. In Hare Island (fig. 4 & 5), in the course of the interval of 1969 to 1993 erosion was Four ha, throughout 1993 to 1996 erosion was 6 ha and through 1996 to 2002 erosion was 6 ha (Desk 3). There isn’t any accretion exercise noticed in Hare Island.
In South harbour breakwater (fig. 4 & 5), in the course of the interval of 1969 to 1993 accretion was 81 ha, throughout 1993 to 1996 accretion was Eight ha and through 1996 to 2002 accretion was 18 ha. There isn’t any erosion noticed (Desk 4). The accretion right here takes place in curvilinear method. Accretion in curvilinear method alongside the shoreline leads to a formation of seashore and comparable paleo seashore ridges have been seen apart from the seashore. The curvilinear formation of this paleo seashore ridges is termed geomorphologically as strandlines.
At city coast (Fig. 4 & 5), erosion was 1 ha and accretion was 15 ha throughout 1969 to 1993, erosion was Three ha and accretion was 6 ha from 1993 to 1996, and the erosion was Three ha and accretion was Three ha for the interval 1996 to 2002. The remark reveals that the erosion is decrease and accretion is increased on this website (Desk 3 & 4). It is usually noticed that there’s not a lot shoreline change within the city atmosphere. Loveson and Rajamanickam (1987 and 1988a) and Loveson et al (1990) have additionally reported the modifications in shoreline of south Indian coast primarily based on deposition of landforms like seashore ridges, incidence of backwater zone and so on., by distant sensing primarily based geomorphological interpretation. Loveson and Rajamanickam (1988b) have additionally identified the doable fall of sea stage in Tuticorin coast as a result of neotectonic rising of the seafloor. The prevailing winds seen at Tuticorin space have been most at North West, North East and North instructions respectively. Prevailing winds have been additionally seen at South West, South and South East instructions however the majority of the months expertise NW, NE and N winds solely. The wind velocity ranges from 9-16 km/hr.
Desk 1: Erosion noticed at Tuticorin coast throughout 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002
12 months Erosion
1969-1993 9 ha.
1993-1996 14 ha.
1996-2002 18 ha.
Desk 2: Accretion noticed at Tuticorin coast throughout 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002
12 months Accretion
1969-1993 138 ha.
1993-1996 18 ha.
1996-2002 24 ha.
Desk 3: Erosion noticed at particular websites in Tuticorin coast throughout 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002
12 months Spit Hare Island City Coast
1969-1993 Four ha. Four ha. 1 ha.
1993-1996 Four ha. 6 ha. Three ha.
1996-2002 5 ha. 6 ha. Three ha.
1969-2002 13 ha. 16 ha. 7 ha.
Desk 4: Accretion noticed at particular websites in Tuticorin coast throughout 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002
12 months Spit Under South harbour breakwater City Coast
1969-1993 7 ha. 81 ha. 15 ha.
1993-1996 Three ha. Eight ha. 6 ha.
1996-2002 2 ha. 18 ha. Three ha.
1969-2002 12 ha. 107 ha. 24 ha.
Relying on the wave sample, which was current in imagery, numerous options reminiscent of refracted waves, diffracted waves and shadow zone have been recognized. These options play a significant position in shaping the shoreline, which additionally depends upon the geographic options that exist alongside the coast.
Within the examine space wave refraction is noticed within the tip of the northern harbour breakwater. Wave propagation and its refraction sample is clearly recognized in IRS P2 Could 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III Could 2001 and IRS 1C LISS III Could 2002 satellite tv for pc imageries (fig. 6, 7 & 8). The linear progressive wave from the offshore space is nearly progressing with an angle of 115° with respect to the mainland. The angularity of the wave propagation is measured by Arc View GIS 3.2 software program. They propagate in SW to NE, in the direction of mainland. The north breakwater is precisely perpendicular (90°) to the course of the wave (fig. 6, 7 & 8). When the wave touches the north breakwater the wave breaks working alongside the breakwater. The refracted wave passes together with harbour breakwater, nearly two kilometers in distance and dissipates its power (fig. 6, 7 & 8). Within the south break water a shoal is current and this shoal hinders the refracted waves and dissipates its power. This refracted wave would not trigger any coastal geomorphic change to the headland as a result of it would not contact it.
Diffraction of water waves is a course of by which power circulation laterally alongside wave crest. Most blatant instance is when waves are intercepted by an impervious construction reminiscent of breakwater. Presence of an obstruction scatters wave disturbance and provides rise to fanning of wave trains on the lee or shadow of the obstruction. Diffraction is a typical phenomenon round islands and might create substantial disturbance to the coastal area which provides additional to the dynamic nature of the coast. IRS P2 Could 1996, IRS LISS III 2001 and IRS LISS III 2002 knowledge offers a transparent illustration of diffracted waves within the examine space. Diffraction of wave is noticed within the Vann Island and in addition to the Hare Island. Since these islands have been the main supply of obstruction for the ocean waves, they offer rise to fanning of wave trains (fig. 6, 7 & 8). Wave diffracts round with face of Hare Island and dissipates power. Change in shoreline is clearly proven in fig. 3. The erosion that has been recognized in sand spit and Hare Island are solely as a result of wave diffraction. That is interpreted by IRS P2 1996, IRS 1C 2001 and IRS 1C 2002 coastal processes examine and 1969 to 2002 shoreline change examine. Erosion / accretion drawback within the examine space isn’t as a result of harbour location and its exercise. Accretion noticed on the leeward aspect of sand spit is because of this diffraction (Fig. 5). The deposition of sediments can be because of the convergence of the diffracted wave within the windward aspect of the sand spit.
When two waves converge with each other, the power on the place of convergence turns into negligible and the waves develop into calm. The purpose at which the 2 waves get converged is called level of convergence and the world at which this phenomena happens is called the shadow zone. Shadow zone may be very nicely recognized from IRS P2 1996, IRS 1C LISS III 2001 and IRS 1C LISS III 2002 imageries. Within the examine space the shadow zone is noticed in between Hare island and Vann island and in addition beneath the south harbour breakwater. When the diffracted wave from each the Hare Island and Vann Island converges, shadow zone is shaped. The purpose of convergence and the shadow zone is clearly proven within the determine 6. The identical phenomenon was noticed beneath the southern breakwater. Right here when the linear progressive wave touches the south of harbour breakwater the wave breaks. Because the hinterland is curvilinear the waves from the south breakwater’s mainland converges with the linear progressive waves and kinds a shadow zone (fig. 6, 7 & 8). There may be not a lot drawback due to this shadow zone formation within the examine space.
Monitoring of coastal bathymetry is important for designing of ports and coastal buildings. It is usually necessary for the exploration and exploitation of non-living and residing sources, to know the dynamics of ocean processes within the continental cabinets, for ship mooring and evaluation of marine residing habitats. In a GIS, the modeling of the Z-axis has develop into an necessary factor. When the 3-D mannequin is particularly utilized to symbolize terrain, then this digital illustration of the elevation is termed as a Digital Elevation Mannequin (DEM). The 3D Tuticorin Bathymetry Elevation Mannequin derived from Naval Hydrographic Chart is proven in determine 9. The slope evaluation of Tuticorin port and its atmosphere inferred from the three-dimensional bathymetry mannequin reveals that the slope is step by step declining within the course of NW to SE. Light slope (1 – 4 °) is noticed adjoining to the city coast in addition to above and beneath the harbour space (fig. 9). Attenuation of waves is extra when it reaches the nearshore space and the place the depth is minimal and the totally different wave patterns noticed due to this attenuation is clearly seen utilizing satellite tv for pc distant sensing (fig. 8).
Waves noticed from the satellite tv for pc imagery and shoreline change have been built-in and the impact of wave over the erosion / accretion website offers the explanation for the positioning to be eroding or accreting. Furthermore bathymetry additionally helps this. The evaluation of wave motion from 1996 – 2002 supplies the data that the wave motion is analogous from the geologic previous. Furthermore the examine space has additionally particular sample of accretion as noticed by strandlines current in south of Tuticorin harbour. So this wave knowledge offers a transparent concept concerning the shoreline change within the current examine. From the neighborhood of the harbour, within the course of NW to SE, steep slopes have been noticed additional offshore (fig. 9). The online sediment transport is from south to north. Delta sedimentation can be noticed close to Koramballam Odai and this river mouth is sheltered with depth worth lower than 2m. That is very nicely recognized by satellite tv for pc imagery. Sediment transport and the slope variations inferred from the city coastal and harbour atmosphere clearly present that the probabilities are much less for sediments to enter into harbour breakwater (fig. 9). Therefore not a lot dredging exercise is required in Tuticorin harbour space.
The coastal processes in Tuticorin coastal space, the shoreline change, wave motion, bathymetry and coastal geomorphology have been analysed utilizing Distant Sensing and GIS instruments. The erosion and accretion noticed at Tuticorin utilizing temporal satellite tv for pc imageries present that the shoreline dynamics is pure and this isn’t as a result of human interference. Coastal processes play a significant position in shaping the coastal configuration of this space. The integrative strategy utilizing Distant Sensing and GIS instruments clearly illustrates each the trigger and causes for the shoreline change. The outcomes of this examine will probably be extra helpful for shoreline administration.